On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally entitled to it.  The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date.   On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect.  After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation.   „Other than that, China will soon have to begin to look beyond simple measures that have great advantages. China must do much more if we are to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. It is the same for almost every other country. But 2017 has not evolved like previous years. Instead of withdrawing from the agreement in response to Trump`s announcement, China has doubled its commitments. Shortly thereafter, China`s Special Representative for Climate Change, Xie Zhenhua, travelled to Brussels to hold a summit with the European Union and Canada to proclaim his country`s determination to maintain the agreement. There are already signs of an economic slowdown in China, which could be accelerated by the continuation of the trade war with the United States.
While the impact of this stagnation is difficult to predict, it could result in increased public investment in carbon-intensive infrastructure or a drag on GDP growth that Wang and his team have associated with reducing emissions. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making „efforts” to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. Prior to China`s announcement, the 23 nations that had ratified the agreement so far accounted for just over 1% of emissions. At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), temperatures are expected to rise by 3.2oC by the end of the 21st century, based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement.